As said earlier, Arian is modeled after Korean, which has complicated system of verb conjugation regarding tense, honorifics, formality of speech, and the sentence's aim (that is, the ending of the verb makes the aim of the sentence clear. i.e., whether the sentence is a question, a suggestion, a statement of a fact, etc.).
How Arian Verb Conjugations Work
Arian verb conjugation works in similar way to that of Korean, except for the placement of tense agglutination and the lack of assisting verbs to mark progressive or perfect tenses. Though not perfect and finished in grammar yet, Arian already has many complex grammar and can translate virtually all Korean sentences word-by-word.
Arian Verb Conjugation Template
Adding on in English, for the chart is in Korean, the left side is Korean verb template.
A typical Korean verb consists of 어간 (root), 선어말어미 (agglutination added right before the verb-ending), and 종결어미(verb-ending) or 연결어미(connective verb-ending; by using this and without using a conjunction, two Korean sentences can be conjoined.).
어간 (root) contains the meaning of the verb, but it is never used alone in Korean. Even mere statement of fact, which is devoid of tense is used with 이다 or 하다 for regular verbs. For example, the regular verb 공부하다(study; verb, no tense) consists of 공부(root) and 하다(종결어미; verb-ending that converts a action noun into a verb).
Arian verb conjugation puts tense(시제) information in front in a form reminding many of us of Spanish articles.
질투하다 = to envy (no exact translation exists in English) = envy do'lan.
질투한다 = envy/envies = a envy do'lan. (present tense)
질투했다 = envied = la envy do'lan.
after that comes the root(어간) which is usually identical in spelling and pronunciation to English verbs. But the root is never conjugated as in English except when the verb is made passive or made causative.
나는 먹는다 = I eat = I'tis a eat do'lan.
내가 먹힌다 = I am eaten = I'fro a eaten do'lan.
내가 그를 먹게 만들었다 = I made him eat = I'fro he'ed av eaten do'lan.
Arian 선어말어미 (agglutination preceding verb-ending)
Arian 종결어미 (Verb-Ending)
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Though not perfect, Arian postpositions are designed to reflect English speaker's feeling of words (connotations) to reflect Korean postpositions. In their forms and grammatical functions, they are modeled after Korean postpositions.
For a brief explanation of what postposition is:
Postpositions come after the word to mark grammatical or meaningful functions of the preceding word. They are similar to prepositions in English such as "after," "toward," "to," "of," and "in." The difference between prepositions and postpositions is that the former comes before the word (hence PREpositions) and the latter comes after the word (hence POSTpositions).
Particularly, Korean postpositions are what mark Korean language as an agglutinative language. They are a pivotal part in Korean grammar and clarify or even mark important meaning or grammatical distinctions. For example let's take this sentence:
나는 너를 사랑한다.
The sentence means "I love you" in standard Seoul Korean dialect. "나" means "I" or first person in informal manner of speech. "너" means "you" or second person in informal manner of speech. "사랑" means love and by itself can serve as a noun. (Not many Korean verbs can become nouns in its root, however.)
Then what does "는" after "나" do? Although controversial among Korean grammarians, "는" serves to mark the subject and adds the information that the rest of the sentence after "나는" will define or describe the "나" or the "I," which is marked as the subject.
In short, "는" is a postpostion that marks the subject and is similar to "be" in English.
Next, "너를" is the object of the sentence and "를" marks the object as an object marker.
Finally, "사랑한다" or "love." "한다" is not a postposition, but a part in Korean verbs that can be considered a conjugation. "하다," which is the unconjugated form of "한다" used here, can turn pretty much any noun of action into a verb. Thus, "사랑" is love and "사랑하다" is a verb meaning "love do" or "love." The "ㄴ" that was added under 하다 gives us the information of tense, in this case present tense. You might wonder, what tense does "하다," the original form have, if "한다" (conjugated form) is in present tense? The orignial form 하다 has no tense. So it is used to declare a fact or any time when a tense is not needed. So in Korean, you can say a sentence that contains no information about the time.
Anyway, sorry for the digression. I think that was enough about postpositions. Here is Arian postpostions, modeled after their Korean counterparts.
Postpositions, shown above, serve the role of prepositions In English. Above are only markers that mark grammatical function.
Here are postpositions that connect words, phrases, or sentences:
And here are postpostions called "보조사" or in direct translation "assisting postpositions":
Since Arian is a language created for it to be able to directly translated into Korean, it has extensive postpositional grammar, for postpositions play a great role in Korean.
The Origin of the Name "Arian"
The Constructed Language of Arian
The Origin of the Name
Aria is transliteration of Korean 아리아, which means ‘elf.’ From the transliteration, the creator added ‘n’ which gives it a form of a language or culture. Elf has magical powers. Arian also has “magical” powers that can convert almost intraslatable Korean sentences into English sentences much fluently and correct in grammar.
What is Arian?
Arian is a conlang constructed by Justin Jin Woo Won. It was created to facilitate translation between English and Korean by providing a language that has similar grammar to that of Korean and proximate lexicon to that of English. Most prepositions in English are manipulated to form Korean-influenced postpositions to form a pivotal part of the language. Due to its grammatical structure and lexicon, Arian is a bridge between the languages Korean and English.
The Reason Why It Was Created
I, the creator of the Arian language, was inspired to create the language by the unfortunate fact that a prominent Korean poet failed to receive the Nobel Literature Prize because of Korean to English’s intranslatability. That’s how different Korean and English and Japanese and English are. To build a bridge between the languages, I was motivated to create a language that has features that resembles both languages, thus easing the translation works between the two languages.